Archived entries for cognition

Why Johnny Can’t Pivot

(crossed-posted on  Send me an invitation!)

Back in the day when songs were stories (think mid-1970s), singer Kenny Rogers summarized the problem of the human condition with a country-rock haiku for the ages:

You’ve got to know when to hold’em
Know when to fold’em
Know when to walk away
Know when to run….

The song is ostensibly about a wizened gambler’s wisdom, back in the days when gamblers traveled on trains bound for nowhere and died quietly in their sleep. What the song is really about, though, is the quality of the metric we use to make choices. We make so many choices in the course of a day, they have become the defining fabric of modern life: aisle or window, cup or cone, soft or firm, Android or Mac.

When a start-up engages in this decision-making struggle on business development, it may use the language of “persevere or pivot.” But when a student is faced with similar struggles in school, psychologist typically employs only one term — ‘grit.’ There is no palpable alternative to grit, only “Johnny has grit” or “Johnny is lacking in grit.” Lacking in grit is considered bad. Hold’em, never fold’em.

Grit is a buzzword in educational circles right now. MacArthur “genius” award recipient Angela Duckworth’s research focuses on grit as a indicator of school and professional successes throughout life. Students who have lots of grit, a close cousin of self-control, will align themselves towards a goal over a long period of time. This can-do spirit is positively correlated with long-term achievement such as “surviving the arduous first summer of training at West Point and reaching the final rounds of the National Spelling Bee, retention in the U.S. Special Forces, retention and performance among novice teachers, and graduation from Chicago public high schools.” (

Don’t get me wrong. Grit is great. But I am concerned that there is no equivalent to the dialectic of “persevere or pivot” in this constellation of holding and folding behaviors for young people. We need to remember that there is such a thing as too much grit. With respect to learners, I hope that educational activities for younger learners are clear and possible to accomplish. As learners mature, however, we typically introduce them to more complex, ambiguous tasks that more closely resemble the cacophony of the adult world. There are fewer clear right answers, and sometimes no good answers at all.

And as such, learners need to appreciate that sometimes – often — it makes absolute sense to change course. We do our learners a disservice if we do not teach them how to assess the wisdom of a given course of action in an ongoing fashion. In our rapid-moving world, what was true yesterday is often not true today, and may directly conflict with tomorrow. We need a re-examination of how grit is considered in education, so we produce a generation of learners who can both embrace long term goals and can recalculate course when necessary.

Does practice make perfect? Probably not.

Today’s Wonderful Find; or, Malcolm Gladwell, suck it:

[A] new study in Psychological Science further complicates things. Practice, according to its findings, doesn’t do a great job explaining why some people are better than others at a given skill.

The researchers studied different domains with respect to the impact of practice, and found that while practice accounted for 25% of the differences between athletes, it accounted for a mere 4% in educational performance and bottomed out at 1% in professional success.  Which makes me wonder if the benefit of practice is largely about muscle memory vs. any kind of meaningful cognitive gains.

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